Menu Contact Us

Topic: Education

What you need to know when you are considering cosmetic surgery

contemplative_womanCosmetic surgery is more in-demand than ever before and procedures have improved dramatically in terms of quality and results. This article will help you in making informed decisionsabout your body and health as you consider a cosmetic surgical procedure. Below you will find a checklist of important considerations when looking for a surgeon as well as information on available procedures. The links in this article lead to other areas of this website where you can learn more about each operation.



Choosing a potential surgeon


There are three main areas to understand when looking at possible surgeons for a cosmetic procedure – qualifications and procedure specific experience, potential risks and complications, and after-care expectations.

You can learn a lot about a doctor’s experience just by looking at the qualifications listed on their title. Although all practicing physicians will have an MD (Doctor of Medicine), a surgeon will go on to specialize in their field and can earn additional accreditation such as the Fellows of the Royal College of Physicians and Surgeons (FRCSC). This is the national standard for specialist medical expertise and confirms the Fellow is committed to specific standards and lifelong learning. You can find out specific information about a surgeon by reviewing their resume and published articles in the medical community.

Beyond this there are a series of online review sites that are specifically tailored toward the medical field where you can get an understanding of a surgeons’ approach. Sites such as Rate MDs and Real Self offer a range of information and patient testimonials. If you want to find out about a doctor’s procedure specific experience, don’t be afraid to simply ask them!

Another concern on most patients’ minds are the potential risks associated with surgery. Below you will find a range of available procedures with links to further information and associated risks or complications.  Take the time to review these areas so you can come to your consultation armed with any questions you need to feel at ease when making your decision.

Sometimes offices have unique services like the Vectra 3D imaging system, which captures face, breast, and body images in ultra-high resolution 3D, and lets patients visualize the possibilities of their aesthetic procedures. Dr. Macadam’s office is equipped with the only Vectra 3D machine of its kind in our area, and allows patients to see possible outcomes in their own image as part of the consultation process.

Lastly, make sure to speak with your doctor about after-care. They will be able to explain the facilities within which the procedures will take place, the time you can spend in the hospital post-operation and how to ensure your healing progresses as planned.

Available procedures


1. Breast Augmentation & Lifts

If you are unhappy with your breasts, you may be considering augmentation. Often, a breast lift (or mastopexy) is performed at the same time for reasons associated with aging, weight loss or post-pregnancy changes. Augmentation can be performed in two ways, either through implants or fat grafting, involving the removal of fat from one area and injection in to the breast.

2. Breast Reduction

This procedure is usually selected for those wishing to alleviate back and neck pain or difficulties in exercising due to the size of your breasts.

3. Tummy Tuck

An abdominoplasty is an option for women that have extra tissue on the lower abdomen that is resistant to exercise and diet. Taking approximately 3-4 hours, this procedure removes excess fatty tissue and tightens the abdomen muscles for a narrower waist and flatter profile.

4. Liposuction

For patients that have stubborn fat they are unable to reduce through diet and exercise alone, liposuction is an option that can be performed on the neck, abdomen, hips, thighs, knees, sides or upper back.

5. Permanent Makeup

From eyeliner and eyebrows to lip colour and symmetry, permanent makeup is ideal for people with fair features, people who are allergic to makeup or people looking to save time. These procedures are fast, simple and done with very limited discomfort.

If you are interested in finding out more you can book a consultation with Dr. Sheina Macadam to discuss your options and address any concerns you may have. Get in touch with our office here.


A woman’s options after breast cancer – Breast Reconstruction

Being diagnosed with breast cancer is a difficult time for anyone. It’s normal to be concerned about what the future holds—many patients find the time after a breast cancer diagnosis to be a challenging period of transition and adjustment. While it can feel overwhelming, understanding your options for treatment can help prevent the anxiety and fear of the unknown. In discussing your treatment options with your doctor, you might consider having a mastectomy or lumpectomy (i.e., the entire or partial removal of breast tissue). Breast reconstruction surgery is common after cancer tissue has been removed and can take place during or soon after this surgery.

Deciding whether or not to have breast reconstruction surgery is a personal choice. It can allow you to feel comfortable in clothing and restore your sense of body image. In addition to restoring self- image the goal of breast reconstruction is ultimately to recreate the breast and to achieve symmetry. While a reconstructed breast will not be identical to your original breast and will not restore full sensation to that area, medical advances to date provide an expansive range of options for women facing the loss of one or both breasts.

To that effect, should you decide to go through with this type of surgery there are two main techniques for breast reconstruction; Flap Surgery which uses tissue from another area of the body and Implant Surgery that uses a carefully chosen implant.



Flap surgery (also referred to as Autologous surgery) involves using tissue from another area of your body such as your abdomen, thigh, back or buttock to form a reconstructed breast, which is then stitched into place. The ultimate source of the tissue is dependent on factors such as your body type, how much tissue is available, breast size and whether you plan on becoming pregnant in the future. There are various flap procedure options including: Deep Inferior Epigastric Artery Perforator Flap (“DIEP”), Lattissismus Dorsi Flap; Superior Gluteal Artery Perforator Flap (“SGAP”) and Transverse Upper Gracilis Flap (“TUG”). These can be illustrated by tissue source as follows:


click to expand


Implant surgery creates a breast that is round and involves inserting an implant filled with salt water (saline) or silicone. Breast implant reconstruction surgery can be performed in one or two stages. One-stage implant reconstruction is performed immediately after your mastectomy. Two-stage implant reconstruction involves using a temporary tissue expander causing the surrounding tissue to stretch to the desired size. After a couple of months, the tissue expander is replaced with a permanent breast implant.

Patients often come into our office unsure of which technique is best for them. Of course, there are considerations for both techniques and it’s a matter of the individual circumstances.



In consultation with your surgeon, you may ultimately choose one technique over the other if:



– Your own tissue and more natural-feeling
– You have sufficient tissue in another area of your body to reconstruct a breast
– You may require radiation therapy after breast reconstruction
Other considerations:
– Breast size may increase/decrease in conjunction with fluctuations in your weight
– Can leave two surgical sites and scars
– Generally requires longer operation and recovery time



– You have insufficient tissue on the abdomen, buttock, back or inner thigh
– You do not need radiation therapy (more likely to become damaged through radiation therapy)
– You’d like to avoid incisions/scars in other parts of your body
Other considerations:
– Shorter operation time on average
– Smaller and thinner women tend to be ideal candidates
– May not be adequate for women with very large breasts
– You may need to remove and/or replace the implant later in life
– Possible implant rupture and other complications


Whichever option you end up choosing – implant surgery or flap surgery- it’s important to make this decision in consultation with your surgeon. Establishing open channels of communication is of the upmost importance to the success of your recovery and satisfaction of the final surgical outcome.

Get in touch – contact Dr. Macadam